Iran is one of the most beautiful countries in the world with a great diversity of natural wonders. About 54% of Iran is covered by mountainous areas. Mountains of Iran are popular for having mineral hot springs and amazing fauna and flora. There are also historical villages in every corner of these mountains which welcome all travelers to stay overnight. What you will enjoy the most will be the beautiful scenery and wonderful wildlife. Here, we briefly introduce different mountains and the highest ones in the country.
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Main Mountains in Iran
Mountains of Iran are divided into five main areas as follows:
1. The Alborz mountain range
The Alborz mountain range is one of the most important mountain ranges in Iran. It stretches from the border of Azerbaijan in the west, along the entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea. It runs to the north-eastern part of Iran and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in Khorasan region.
This mountain range is divided into three areas of Western, Central, and Eastern. The Western Alborz Range is usually called the Talish Mountains. The Central Alborz runs from west to east along the entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand with 5671 meters of height is located in the Central Alborz Mountains. The Eastern Alborz runs in a north-easterly direction towards the northern part of Khorasan region.
Sahand and Sabalan Mountains are two peculiar and beautiful mountain peaks in north-west of the Alborz Mountains. Sahand is around 3700 meters above the sea level. It has been the residential area for Nomad tribes for centuries. There are a variety of breathtaking paths and beautiful routes for mountain climbing. Sabalan is 4800 meters above the sea level. What makes this mountain so special is the magnificent Crater Lake on the top of this volcano.
Takhte Soleyman and Alam kuh are located in the Central Alborz Mountains. There are also natural glaciers such as Sarchal, Alam Chal, Hesar Chal, Spilet, and more than 30 other peaks. There are some mountains more than 4000 meters above the sea level. This area is considered one of the most beautiful and amazing places for mountain climbing and trekking. The summit of Alam Kouh Mountain is over 4850 meters above the sea level. Every year, thousands of tourists visit this region with professional skiing tours, rock climbing, and climbing tours.
2. The Zagros mountain range
The Zagros mountain range stretches from the western part of Iran through the central area of the country. It is the largest mountain range of Iran. It consists of folded mountains made up mostly of limestone and dolomite. The famous rivers of Karun and Zayandeh-Rud flow from these mountains. The flora in this area is very rich. Persian oak (Quercus brantii) is the most important tree species of the Zagros Mountains in Iran.
Dena Mountain which is 4450 meters above the sea level, is the highest summit of the Zagros Mountains. Zagros includes Shahou, Dalahou, Oshtorankouh, Zardkouh, and Dena. In addition to plant and animal variety, it has been the host of several Iranian nomads as well.
3. Central Mountains
The Central Mountains with over 4000 meters of height are located on the border of the Lut Desert and Dasht-e Kavir. There are pristine altitudes in central Iran. Some of them are connected to the Alborz or the Zagros mountain ranges. They can mainly be categorized into Qahrud and Banan Mountains. Qahrud, which is longer and higher, starts from Kashan and the southern part of Tehran and stretches to Kerman. Banan is the continuation of the former one to Makran area in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Mount Shir Kuh with 4075 meters above the sea level is in this area near the city of Yazd.
The central part of Iran is a very significant region as far as minerals are concerned. There is a little rainfall during the year. Sudden changes in weather, strong winds, a few permanent rivers and flood-producing rivers in this region are common.
4. Khorasan Mountains
The Alborz extend to the North East of Iran and forms Khorasan Mountains. This Mountain range can be divided into some smaller ranges. The northern range is extended from Kopet Dagh to Hari River. The central range is located around Bojnurd and Quchan, with its highest peak at the south of Quchan which is 3520 meters above the sea level. The southern range consists of some individual peaks with lower altitudes.
5. Eastern Mountains
The last mountain range of Iran extends from Khorasan in the north into Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the south. The Eastern Mountains of Iran can be categorized into three main areas:
- Jaam in South Khorasan, is generally extended from east to the west.
- Qaen to the south of Jaam, includes “Ahangaran” peak, 2877 meters above the sea level
- Makran is extended from Zabol to Bam Posht. The highest peak in this region is called Taftan, inactive volcano, which stands in the southeast of Iran with an altitude of 4050 meters above the sea level.
Highest Mountains in Iran
Here is the list of Mountains in Iran which are the highest and best places for mountain climbing.
Mount Damavand, 5,671 meters height
Mount Damavand is a potentially active volcano, which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia.
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Alam-Kuh, 4,850 meters height
The mountain is mainly made of Tertiary intrusive rocks; granite and diorite. Some Triassic and Jurassic sediments are also found at the area.
Sabalan 4,811 meters height
This inactive stratovolcano mountain is famous for its amazing and wonderful lake on its summit. The normal route to the summit requires moderate fitness.
Mount Takht-e Suleyman, 4,659 meters height
Takht-e Suleyman means Solomon’s Throne. It refers to a peak and a sub-range (massif) in the Central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. It is a very rugged peak whose slopes are covered by cliffs which can be thought of as sub-peaks.
Dena, 4,409 meters height
There is a variety of steppes in Dena due to the high elevation of the mountain. Permanent glaciers such as Ghashmastan, Bozkosh, Pidini, Kaladun, Abesepid, Karsomi, Kaykhosro, and Pazanpir are the main source of water in Padena and Boyerahmad region.
Azad Kuh, 4,375 meters height
There are two main routes for climbing this peak. The easier and shorter one which takes 1 to 2 days to pass through Kalaak-e-Baalaa village. The second crosses Vaarange Rud village and takes 2–3 days.
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